Previous Post: 'The non-observable Universe V'
Read the full article here (via SKL repository).
According to a well-known type of realist standpoint, entity realism (Losee, 1993; Harré,1986), we can divide the world in many ‘cognitive kingdoms’: realm I asserts the existence of fully observable entities of Definition 1.1; realm II corresponds to non-observable in the sense of Definition 1.2a and realm III is made up of entities in the sense of Definition 1.2b. Much of what exists in the Universe is and will always be non-observable, leading to the proposition of non-empirically accessible causes in realm III. Examples of such entities abound in statistical and quantum physics or in genetic biology to quote a few. By adopting such realist view of the world, modern science has definitely showed that the scope of scientific enquiry cannot be restricted to public available phenomena. Here we have extended such a view to include meta-observable occurrences that would constitute “realm IV”.
The phenomenological classification that we propose has 16 main classes as the set of all possible types of phenomena in Nature, in accordance to 4 distinct phenomenological properties: observability, visibility, reproducibility and periodicity. These features are independent of any cause or theory that is proposed to explain phenomena; although knowledge of the occurrence conditions may impact the way they are perceived or reproduced. This simple classification is a useful picture for the exposition of many the features associated to a purely phenomenological description of Nature. The aim of this text was to emphasize such features and to show that they may lead us to wrong theoretical conclusions if class specific research methods are misapplied across other classes.
Such classification ‘landscape’ (in the final entity-relationship diagram of Fig. 1) must be remembered before any attempt to use a research method exported from a predefined discipline. A research method is a theory dependent procedure from which propositions or statements for certain phenomenological classes are inferred. The theory associated to such a procedure is essentially a language to treat events caused by established objects of study. In principle, the research process popularly described as the ‘scientific method’ cannot be said to be inadequate, but possibly that it can only be applied to a very restricted subset of events, in particular to those that are minimally reproducible or highly cyclical. On the contrary, one can argue that to demand reproducibility (laboratory tests) at any cost poses a severe threat to the development of theories to account for anomalies, because of an unjustified restriction of scope it leads to, given the variety of phenomenological classes in Nature. It also represents a threat to science understood in a more general way.
The characterization of certain diseases by the observation of similar symptoms in large populations, mainly when an unknown disease cannot be reproduced in the lab or is associated to symptoms not directly accessible, is a standard methodology among physicians. According to our classification, symptoms may be described as both public and private occurrences that require direct or device assisted diagnostic procedures. And, just as a physician is not admitted to discredit his patients complains about the symptoms (private events), researches cannot undermined meta-observables associated to the registration of many anomalies. The physician task is to arrive at plausible mechanisms to explain all aspects of the disease, symptoms included, and to propose a suitable treatment procedure. So, again a true science of anomalies will only take place as plausible mechanisms for understanding meta-observables become available, paving the way for the correct identification of other sources. The new way of doing science will thus demand to accept meta-observables (new sensory faculties) as the first step toward the correct treatment of anomalies in the sense of Definition 8.
Will it be possible to devise a new research method to study anomalistic occurrences? Such is the challenge of future science from the methodological point of view. The development of such special methods will require an open minded attitude on regard to the attribution of causes or phenomenological sources. What is at dispute here, defying naturalistic explanations, is the proposition of new sources to properly account for facts representing anomalistic events. Thus, forcing naturalistic explanations may lead to bad science contrary to what many skeptics believe.
Alvarado C. S. (2010). Investigating Mental Mediums: Research Suggestions from the Historical Literature, Journal of Scientific c Exploration, 24 (2), pp. 197–224.
Anderson, C., (1933). The Positive Electron, Physical Review. 43, Second Series, No. 6., pp. 491-494.
Bartoshuk, L. M., (2000), Comparing sensory experiences across individuals: recent psychophysical advances illuminate genetic variation in taste perception. Chem. Senses, 25, pp. 447-460.
Baruss I. (2001), Failure to Replicate Electronic Voice Phenomenon, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 15(3), pp. 355
Bauer H. H. (1987), What Do We Mean by “Scientific?”, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 1(2), pp. 119-127.
Bauer H. H. (1988), Commonalities in Arguments Over Anomalies, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 2(1). pp. 1-11.
Bauer H. H. (1989), Arguments Over Anomalies: 11. Polemics, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3(1) , pp. 1 – 14.
Bechtel W, (1990), Scientific Evidence: creating and evaluating experimental instruments and research techniques. Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Vol 1, pp. 559-572.
Bender, H. (1972). The phenomena of Friedrich Jurgenson. Journal of Paraphysics, 6, 65–75
Braude S. (1986), The limits of influence: Psychokinesis and philosophy of science, Routledge and Kegan, Inc.
Bohm, D. (1952).A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of “hidden variables” – I and II. Physical Review 85(2), pp.166-179 and pp.180-193.
Brynie F. H. (2009), Brain Sense: the science of the senses and how we process the world around us. Chapter 6. Amacon Books.
Carilli, C. L. (1995), Neutral Hydrogen 21 cm Quasar Absorption Line Systems, Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, 16, Suppl, pp. 163.
Casimir H. B. G.. (1948). On the attraction between two perfectly conducting plates. Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. 51, pp. 793-5
Chalmers A. F. (1999), What is this thing called Science?, Chapter 1, Hackett Pub. Co., 3rd edition.
Coleman P. F. (2006), A Unified Theory of Ball Lightning and Unexplained Atmospheric Lights, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 20(2), pp. 215-238.
Creath K. and Schwartz G. E. (2005), What biophoton images of plants can tell us about biofields and healing, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 19 (4), pp. 531.
D'Amico N., Lyne A.G., Manchester R.N., Camilo F.M., Kaspi , Bell J., Stairs I.H., Crawford F., Morris D., Possenti A.. (1999), The Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey: preliminary results, Preprint version available at arXiv:astro-ph/9911482v1
Dirac, P. A. (1928) , The quantum theory of electron. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A117. pp. 610-624.
Ellis, D. J. (1975). Listening to the ‘Raudive voices.’ Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 48, 31–4.
Evers L. G. and Haak H. W., (2009), The Characteristics of Infrasound, its Propagation and Some Early History, Infrasound Monitoring for Atmospheric Studies. Part 1, pp.3-27, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9508-5_1
Frame P. W. (2004), A History of Radiation Detection Instrumentation, Health Physics, 87(2) pp. 111-135.
Franklin A., (2003), Are there really neutrinos?, An Evidential History, Westview Press.
Gauld A. (1982), Mediumship and Survival. Heinemann, London.
Giere, R. (1992), Science without laws, The Univ. of Chicago Press.
Harré, R (1986), Varieties of Realism: a rationale for the natural sciences,Oxford: Blackwell.
Hubel D. H. (1995), Eye, Brain and Vision, W. H. Freeman, 2nd Edition.
Hull D. L. (1988). Science as a Process. Univ. of Chicago Press.
Joad C. E. M. (1950), A Critique of Logical Positivism, The University of Chicago Press.
Kaas J. H., (2007), The evolution of the complex sensory and motor systems of the human brain. Brain Research Bulletin, 75, Issues 2-4.
Kollerstrom N. (2009), The naming of Neptune, Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 12(1), p. 66-71.
Kowal C. T. and Drake S. (1980), Galileo's observations of Neptune , Nature, 287, p. 311
Kuhn T. S. (1970), The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press, chapter 10.
Lakatos I., Worrall J., Gregory C. (1980), The methodology of scientific research programmes, Cambridge Univ. Press.
Losee J. (1993), A historical introduction to Philosophy of Science, 3rd edition, Oxford Univ. press. Capter 18.
Morgan M. J., Adam A., Mollon J. D. (1992). Dichromats detect colour-camouflaged objects that are not detected by trichromats. Proc. Of the Royal Soc. Of London, 248(1323), pp. 291-5.
Morris R. L. (1999), Experimental Systems in Mind-Matter Research, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 13(4), p. 561.
Oreskes N. (1999), The Rejection of Continental Drift: Theory and Method in American Earth Science, Oxford University Press.
Pakdemirli M., (1993). Does religion contradict science?, American Journal of Physics. 61, 201, doi:10.1119/1.17287
Papantonopoulos E, (2007), The invisible universe: dark matter and dark energy, Springer-Verlag.
Passini A. (2003), From Observation to Simulations: a Conceptual Introduction to Weather and Climate Modeling. World Scientific Cop. Ltda.
Parnia S., Waller D. G., Yeates R. and Fenwic P. (2001), A qualitative and quantitative study of the incidence, features and etiology of near death experiences in cardiac arrest survivors. Resuscitation, 48(2) pp. 149-156.
Peebles, P. J. E, (2009), Phenomenology of the Invisible Universe, arXiv:0910.5142v1
Penrose R. (1989). The Emperor’s New Mind: concerning computers, minds and the laws of physics, Chapter 6, Quantum magic and quantum mystery. Oxford Univ. Press,
Popper K. (1950). Indeterminism in Quantum Physics and in Classical Physics, The British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 1 (2), pp. 117-133 and 2(3), pp. 173-195.
Popper K. (1968), The Logic of Scientific Discovery, London: Hutchinson, Chapter 5 and Appendix x.
Quine W. V. O. (1951), The two dogmas of Empiricism, The Philosophical Review, 60. Pp. 20-43
Rhine J. B. (1944). The PK Effect: Early Single Tests. Journal of Parapsychology, 32, p. 293.
Rhine, J. B., Pratt, J. G., Smith, B. M., Stuart, C. E., and Greenwood, J. A. (1966). Extrasensory Perception after Sixty Years. Boston: Bruce Humphreys (originally published 1940).
Rinia E. J., van Leeuwen T., Bruins E. E. W. , van Vuren H. G. , Anthony F. J. van Raan (2006), Measuring knowledge transfer between fields of science, Scientometrics, 54, Number 3, Akadémiai Kiadó.
Ring K. and Lawrence M. (1993). Further evidence for veridical perception during near-death experiences, Journal of Near-death studies, 11(4), pp. 223-229.
Schmidt, H. (1974) Comparison of PK action on two different random number generators. Journal of Parapsychology, 38, p.47-55.
Schroter-Kunhard M. (1993), A review of Near Death Experiences, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 7(3), pp. 219-239.
Sears D. W. (1975), Sketches in the History of Meteoritics 1: The Birth of Science, Meteoritics, 10 (3), p. 215
Segre. E., (1994), Religion versus science? American Journal of Physics 62, (296), doi:10.1119/1.17567
Shapin S., (1996), The Scientific Revolution, Univ. of Chicago Press.
Swords M. D., (1993), A Guide to UFO Research, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 7(1), pp. 65-87.
Swords, M. D. (2006), Ufology: What have we learned?, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 20(4), pp. 545-589.
Szostak, R. (2005), Classifying Science: Phenomena, Data, Theory, Method, Practice, Springer; 1 edition.
Toulmin S. (1974). Rationality and Scientific Discovery in Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science edited by K. Schaffer and R. Cohen. XX (Dordrech: D. Reidel).
Turner D. J. (2003), The missing science of ball lighting, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 17(3), pp. 435- 496.
Van Lommel P., van Wees R. Meyers V., Elfferich I. (2001), Near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: a prospective study in the Netherlands, The Lancet, 358(9298), pp. 2039-2045.
Verschuur G. L., (2007), The invisible universe: the story of radio astronomy, Springer Science and Business Media, LLC.
Whittaker E, (1953), A history of the theories of Aether and Electricity, Thomas Nelson and Sons LTD.
Westrum R. (1978), Science and Social Intelligence about Anomalies: The Case of Meteorites, Social Studies of Science, 8(4), pp. 461-493.
Wikipedia: Scientific Method, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method